Archive for July 29, 2012

Illiteracy and Outsourcing?

Much has been said and written about American jobs being outsourced  to other countries, and many reasons have been given as to why this is so. Here is one more reason to add to the list — illiteracy.

What on earth does illiteracy have to do with outsourcing? What’s going on, anyway?

According to a recent article by Robert Reich (http://robertreich.org 7-18-12) America isn’t educating enough of our people well enough to get American-based companies to do more of their high-value added work here. He states our K-12 school system isn’t nearly up to what it should be, and that American students continue to do poorly in math and science relative to students in other advanced countries.

Take a closer look at Apple, for example: low wages are not the major force driving them abroad. The components Apple’s Chinese contractors assemble come from many places around the world with wages as high if not higher than in the United States.

More than a third of what you pay for an iPhone ends up on Japan, because that’s where some of its most advanced components are made. Seventeen percent goes to Germany, whose precision manufacturers pay wages higher than those paid to American manufacturing workers because German workers are more highly skilled. Thirteen percent comes from South Korea, whose median wage isn’t far from our own.

Sadly, workers in the United States get only about six percent of what you pay for an iPhone, which goes to American designers, lawyers, and financiers, as well as Apple’s top executives.

And the share of R&D spending going to the foreign subsidiaries of American-based companies rose from 9 percent in 1989 to almost 16 percent in 2009 according to the National Science Foundation.  (http://robertreich.org 7-18-12)

And to think it all begins way back in first grade, with teaching reading! Because first, you read. Everything else follows. And if you can’t — it doesn’t.

The mightiest mountain in the whole world is easily climbed by taking only one small step at a time and keeping on going, and the biggest book in the whole world is easily read blending one letter sound at a time into syllables, words, phrases, and sentences using direct, explicit phonics.

Teaching reading is really very easy — anyone can teach it, and everyone can learn!

Multisyllable Word Practice

Question:

“I was wondering what resources I should use now with my 3rd grade reader.  We have finished Phonics Pathways, but I still feel he needs more instruction in decoding, especially big words. Also, he also doesn’t always apply the rules or know when to apply the rules.”

Answer:

Good question! Just because a child may have had phonics and is able to read simple words does not mean he is therefore automatically able to read multisyllable words. It takes practice — graduated, sequential and progressive practice — moving from simple multisyllable words to more difficult combinations.

Consider getting Reading Pathways — it is specifically designed to develop ease, fluency, and accuracy when reading long, multisyllable words. Words are built one syllable at a time, and read first with a phonetic spelling and then with the genuine spelling. You can see sample pages on my website www.dorbooks.com

Reading Pathways begins with simple word pyramids, progressing to multisyllable word mini-pyramids, and finally to complex four-syllable multisyllable word pyramids. Students love the pyramid format and tend to think of it more as a game than a reading lesson!

As far as not applying the rules or knowing when to apply them, it sounds to me as though he may need more review. Phonics Pathways is deceptively simple, and it’s very easy to go through the book too quickly. However, it’s important that every lesson should be automatic in recall before proceeding to the next one.
Whenever you get to a place in his reading that he stumbles on or seems unsure of, review. Review, review, review! It’s so important to read accurately and not guess at multisyllable words!
Recently someone wrote to me saying her son had thrown his food wrappers on the grass as they walked in the park. When she corrected him, he said “It’s okay Mom, the sign says “Dumping Permitted.” But the sign actually said “Dumping Prohibited.” As Mark Twain said:
“The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug!”

 

Kiwi and Josie (off topic)

Question:

Do you still have Kiwi? Can you give us an update about her? It was so cute the way she cuddled with Dewey in the picture.

Answer:

Many of you have written from time to time asking about Kiwi, the sweet little pussycat shown with Dewey in the front of Phonics Pathways.

Sadly she is no longer with us. But you can read her life story here, and see a few more pictures as well. We will remember her forever in our hearts!

Josie

Now we have a black and white tuxedo kitty, named “Josie” in honor of my publisher Jossey-Bass. She follows us around, keeps a close eye on all our activities, let’s us know when it’s time for bed, and converses with two blue jays in our back yard. They “talk” back and forth all day long. She’s a dear little thing and we love her very much! This picture shows her getting a reading lesson, and here she is taking a break: Josie.

Picture This!

Much has been said about pre-reading, and how much or whether it is even helpful when learning how to read. Let’s narrow this discussion to illustrations, and take a closer look at whether or not pictures help or hurt the reading process:

If a story has too many pictures in it that give away the whole plot, it defeats the purpose of decoding because we already know everything about it and there’s no motivation to read any further. If it has just a few illustrations, this can perk up the child and give him a sense of what the story is all about, hook his interest, and motivate him to go ahead and read it. However, some experts such as Robert Calfee say that any pictures at all distract from the decoding mechanism (Robert Calfee, “Memory and Cognitive Skills in Reading Acquisition,” Reading Perception and Language 1975)

We know that the left brain acquires knowledge in small, sequential steps, such as learning math and letter sounds. And the right brain acquires knowledge by seeing the whole picture, as with illustrations and sight words. And amazingly, researchers such as Schwartz and Begley (The Mind and the Brain) have discovered that activity in the right hemisphere of our brain actually suppresses the activity of the mirror-image region in the left hemisphere if introduced at the same time or too soon!

There is a way in which pictures are highly beneficial to the learning process when learning how to read, and that is to illustrate letters with pictures of words beginning with the sound being introduced. (It can be difficult to hear these sounds within a word when first learning, especially for English-language learners and students with learning disabilities.)

It’s especially effective to include multiple examples, as this imparts the subtle range and depth that make up each sound, much like a 3-D hologram. Listening for and identifying these sounds develops phonemic awareness, the important first step in learning how to read. Illustrating letter sounds as they are learned greatly accelerates learning, just as using Cuisinaire rods and other manipulatives accelerate learning mathematics. Here is an example: The Short Sound of E  

The best example I can think of to demonstrate this concept is to try and read a Russian letter — Russian has different symbols for sounds and puts you in the shoes of a child trying to read without knowing letter sounds. Can you name this letter and say its sound? Mystery Russian Letter Hmmm…

Now try reading this letter again, this time with multiple pictures beginning with the sound of the letter. Just say the name of each picture, and note the beginning sound: Mystery Russian Letter. Simple, isn’t it?

Finally, look at it one more time and discover both the name and sound of this Not-So-Mysterious Russian Letter. See? Now you can read Russian!

Ernest Hemingway once said it takes a man half a lifetime to learn the simplest things of all. It took me that long to learn how to simplify and teach the English language.

Teaching reading is really very easy — anyone can teach it, and everyone can learn!